Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program
Country Brief:

Since independence from France in 1960, Chad has suffered from instability and conflict – arising from tensions between different religious and ethnic factions, further fuelled by interference from neighboring states. President Idriss Déby Itno and his party, the Patriotic Salvation Movement, have dominated Chadian politics since taking power in 1990. Chad suffers from a fragmented political opposition (estimated between 70 to 110 political parties) and all but the ruling party suffers from a lack of organization and funding. The country also completed this year the legislative and presidential elections organized within the framework of the “Accords du 13 août 2007”, under the auspices of the European Union in order to “consolidate the democratic process”. President Deby’s party won the legislative elections, organized on February 13, 2011, with 118 over the 188 seats. But these results were contested by the opposition which alleged irregularities and massive frauds. The presidential election held on April 25, 2011 was boycotted, as in 2006, by the main opposition leaders who made similar allegations. President Déby won 83,59% against two marginal opponents, with a disputed rate of participation of 55,71%. The municipal elections were programmed for November 2011.

Chad is among the poorest countries in the world, with around 55 percent of the population living below the poverty line and about 36 percent of the population living in extreme poverty. Poverty is primarily concentrated in rural areas, where 87 percent of the country’s poor live. 2003 represents an important shift in the history of Chad as the country became an oil producing nation and oil revenues began accruing. The substantial increase in revenues created by the on-set of oil has led to an important increase in public spending in priority poverty reducing sectors as highlighted in the Government’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper.

Over the years, the security situation has generally improved. However, the crisis in Libya is having a serious impact as more than 70000 Chadians have fled the war and returned to Chad. The last rebel activity dates back to May 2009 in the country’s eastern areas. In January 2010, Chad and Sudan signed a new peace agreement. Simultaneously, the government negotiated with several rebel leaders who agreed to engage in the legal political process. The UN Peacekeeping mission’s mandate in Chad terminated in 2010. Since 2010, Chad’s security situation remains calm. The Chadian government has engaged in consolidating peace and social cohesion as cornerstones for development. The National Development Strategy 2013-2015 encourages the promotion of human rights, peace and social cohesion by strengthening the legal and institutional framework, promoting and protecting human rights, setting-up conflict resolution mechanisms to consolidate peace and social cohesion, and security sector reform.

Last updated: September 2011


TDRP Activities:

In May 2012, the Government of Chad presented its demobilization and reintegration program, the Programme National de Démobilisation et Réintégration des Militaires (PNDR), to donors. PNDR focuses on the reintegration of 5000 soldiers who were demobilized between October 2011 and December 2012. PNDR anticipates the needs related to the demobilization of new elements in line with the army’s restructure. In response to a government request, the TDRP began working on providing technical assistance to the World Bank office in Ndjamena on the reinsertion of demobilized military personnel. The TDRP works in close cooperation with CODEREM staff and implementing partners in Chad. The main outcomes from the technical assistance include the successful completion of the census and individual profiling of demobilized soldiers, the set-up of a database management system, and enhanced capacity of CODEREM staff in information and data management. Since August 2013, CODEREM and PNDR’s implementing partners have access to key data on the location and socio-economic profile of demobilized soldiers which is essential for planning and monitoring their socio-economic reintegration.


Country facts
Population (millions) 12.45
Life expectancy at birth (years) 50
Surface area (thousands sq. km) 1,284
Gross national income per capita (current US$) 770
GDP growth (annual %) 8.9
 World Development Indicators
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