Democratic Republic of Congo
Country page last updated March 2009
Democratic Republic of Congo Fact Sheet - March 2009
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MDRP Democratic Republic of Congo Activities at a Glance
Finances
  • Total of $272 million of which: IDA grant of $150 million; MDTF grant of $100 million; AfDB grant of $22 million
Activities
  • National program initially targeted 150,000 ex-combatants
  • UN agencies and international NGOs have received over $30 million in direct MDRP funding to implement special projects in the DRC since 2003.
    Many of these projects focused on children associated with armed forces. All are now closed.
Progress
  • 86% of the adults registered for socio-economic reintegration have been provided with assistance.
  • 30,219 child soldiers were released. 85% have been reunified with their families and 15% placed in foster care. 75% have been provided with vocational training or education opportunities.
  • The World Bank also established a single country trust fund for emergency reintegration activities in the East of the country.
Table last updated March 2009
 

Background

Following independence in 1960, violent power struggles eventually ended with the installment of then-army chief Joseph Mobutu as President in 1965. Mobuto’s reign came to an Democratic Republic of Congoend in 1997, when neighboring Rwanda invaded to flush out extremist Hutu militias in 1997 and joined Uganda in supporting anti-Mobutu rebels, which quickly captured the capital of Kinshasa, installing Laurent Kabila as President and renaming the country the DRC. In 1998, former allies Rwanda and Uganda supported another rebel movement to oust Kabila, prompting armed intervention from Angola and Zimbabwe. In all, seven foreign countries became involved ( Angola, Burundi, Chad, Namibia, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zimbabwe). Sometimes dubbed Africa’s “first world war,” the conflict claimed an estimated three million lives. The Lusaka Ceasefire Accords was signed in July 1999.

By late 2003, a Transitional Government was formed with Kabila and four appointed vice presidents, two of whom had been fighting to oust him until July 2003. T he Accord, the subsequent Inter-Congolese Dialogue and the installment of the United Nations peacekeeping mission, MONUC, resulted in relative security in most of the country, with the exception of the Ituri district, and parts of the Kivu provinces and Katanga, which have continued to suffer from the presence of several militias and armed groups. On July 30, 2006, the Congo held its first multi-party elections since independence in 1960. After two rounds of voting, Joseph Kabila won the Presidential bid in November 2006.

In August 2008, armed conflict resumed between the rebel National Congress in Defense of the People (CNDP) and the Congolese military (FARDC). This reached a stalemate in late 2008 with internationally brokered negotiations. In early December 2008 the two governments of DRC and Rwanda reached an agreement on the following: (i) joint military operations against the Rwandan rebels, the FDLR (Forces Democratique pour la Liberation du Rwanda); (ii) the integration of the CNDP forces into the FARDC and join in the Governments fights against the FDLR; and (iii) the arrest of former CNDP head, General Laurent Nkunda. On the 19 January 2009, military operations began against the FDLR. Rwandan soldiers are currently active in eastern DRC for this operation.

 

 

National Program

Name:

Programme National de Désarmement, Démobilisation, et Réinsertion (PNDDR)

Implementing Agency:

Commission Nationale de Désarmement, Démobilisation, et Réinsertion (CONADER)

Financing:

$272 million (World Bank IDA grant: $150 million | Multi-Donor Trust Fund: $100 million | AfDB grant: $22 million)

Status:

Ongoing (MDRP financing is closed)

Objectives

The objective of the project is to help consolidate peace and promote economic stability and sustainable development in the DRC and in the greater Great Lakes region. The specific objectives of the program will be to:

  • Demobilize up to an estimated 150,000 ex-combatants and to help support their return to civilian life;
  • Promote the reallocation of Government expenditure from military to social and economic sectors.

 

Overall Progress Table:


 

Quarterly Progress:

  • 86% of the adults registered for socio-economic reintegration have been provided with assistance.
  • 30,219 child soldiers were released. 85% have been reunified with their families and 15% placed in foster care. 75% have been provided with vocational training or education opportunities.
  • The World Bank also established a single country trust fund for emergency reintegration activities in the East of the country.


     

    Special Projects

    Project:

    Prevention of Recruitment, Demobilization and Reintegration of Children Associated with Armed Forces

    Administrator:

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

    Financing:

    $4.9 million

    Status:

    Closed

    Objectives:

    • Help the government of transition in the development and implementation of the Programme Nationale de Désarmement, Démobilisation et Réinsertion (PNDDR) with specific reference to children
    • Establish coordination mechanisms at the national and provincial levels for the implementation of demobilization and reintegration programs for children in the armed forces
    • Establish and support monitoring and evaluation mechanisms for programs for children in armed groups
    • Train government and NGO personnel in the approach, mechanisms and tools of the PNDDR
    • Support national NGOs for the family and community reintegration of demobilized child soldiers
    • Develop and assist with the implementation of information/sensitization activities
    • Develop the capacities (through training) of the national partners (governmental and non-governmental)
    • Establish a rapid response mechanism for the demobilization and reintegration of children from the armed forces

     

    _________________________________________________________

     

     

    Project:

    Situation Assessment and Pilot Projects for Demobilization and Reintegration of Child Soldiers in Orientale, Northern Katanga and Maniema Provinces

    Administrator:

    International Rescue Committee (IRC), International Foundation for Education and Self-Help (IFESH), CARE International

    Financing:

    $9.16 million

    Status:

    Closed

    Objectives:

    This project consists of four components to be implemented in three provinces of eastern DRC:

    • Assessment of armed groups' willingness to demobilize children. Activities will include: (i) an assessment of the willingness of armed groups to provide access to children and agree to their demobilization; an analysis of the dynamics leading to their initial recruitment; (ii) the development of a system of identification and verification for children, in collaboration with UNICEF and BUNADER; (iii) the development of a password-protected on-line database to manage information collected from all field sites.
    • Community sensitization and training. Activities will include: (i) sensitization and training activities with key community members, to establish the foundation for community-level protection committees; (ii) completion of a survey that will serve as the basis for the composite mapping of reintegration opportunities and needs in targeted areas, created from surveys of market and infrastructure surveys, and of market possibilities, educational opportunities, and social resources; (iii) tracing a sample group of children and reunifying them with their parents, and researching alternative care for those children who are either untraceable or cannot be reunified for the time being.
    • Development of provincial plans for demobilization. Activities will include: (i) the development of provincial plans within a more global framework, with input from national and international partners in the targeted areas-local; (ii) the organization of fori in each province to discuss and agree upon definitions, principles and approaches for the child soldier DDR process; (iii) the production of a detailed implementation plan.
    • Child soldier reintegration. Activities will include: (i) building the capacity of local partners engaged in child protection work; (ii) strengthening local structures and committees and setting up new ones; (iii) training local authorities and military battalions on child protection needs and the demobilization process; (iv) conducting large-scale dissemination and awareness-raising campaigns to increase knowledge of the national demobilization plan at the community level; (v) conducting identification and verification of child soldiers; (vi) setting up and managing transit centers for demobilized children; (vii) ensuring the provision of psychosocial activities at the transit center (CTO - centre de transit et d'orientation) and the community level; (viii) conducting ongoing tracing, reunification and follow-up of demobilized children; (ix) conducting community-based reintegration activities; (x) develop a strategy for child education "catch-up"; and (xi) setting up special community funds to facilitate child soldier reintegration, prevent re-recruitment and support other vulnerable children.

    Approximately 35 community-based reintegration activities will include: rehabilitation of buildings, social infrastructure or economic activities identified through participatory research.

     

    _________________________________________________________

     

    Project:

    Capacity Building and Support to the Prevention of Recruitment, Demobilization and Reintegration of Children Associated with Armed Forces

    Administrator:

    Belgian Red Cross

    Financing:

    $1.1 million

    Status:

    Closed

    Objectives:

    The project consists of three components that will be implemented in Kinshasa and in the southern part of the Equateur region focused around Mbandaka:

    • Training of Personnel – Personnel of the Red Cross in the DRC will be trained to work with demobilized child soldiers at transit centers (CTO - centre de transit et d'orientation), as well as to mediate with their families and conduct sensitization activities at the community level. This training will cover the following topics: psychosocial development and evolution of children and child soldiers, techniques of communication and observation, mediation, active participatory research, counseling/psycho-therapy, education activities, preparation for return to and reintegration of child into the family and community.
    • Sensitization and Prevention – The Red Cross will carry out activities aimed at several different groups to increase their understanding of: the need to better protect children, the legal framework of child protection, the situation of child soldiers, and their reintegration back into family and community. These groups to be targeted include: government, local authorities, communities, families, teachers and students. This component will include the training of Red Cross volunteers on the situation of demobilized child soldiers, who are then to monitor the situation of demobilized child soldiers and their communities and intervene when they see children or families having trouble adapting.
    • Reintegration of demobilized child soldiers back into their families and/or communities – Transit centers (CTO) will be opened that will have the capacity to accommodate 50 children divided between houses that can lodge 10-15 children. A "parental couple" will act as parental substitutes in each of the houses and will undertake the daily care of the children, in cooperation with educators, mediators, a doctor, a psychologist, guards and chauffeurs. The children will remain in the CTO for an average of three months, during which time their situation will be analyzed and they will be prepared to re-enter their families and communities.
    This preparation will consist of a minimal education (reading, writing, etc), psycho-social counseling, some skills-oriented training, as well as sports and religious activities. A file will be created for each child that includes a medical evaluation, a psychological evaluation, level of instruction reached, family history, socio-economic situation of the family, and the behavior of the child at the CTO. Individual plans will then be drawn up determining reuniting with families or receiving alternative care arrangements, specifying individual and family counseling needs and the amount of follow-up to be conducted once the child leaves the CTO (with a minimum of one visit a month for a year), planning the reintegration of the child into school or an apprenticeship, etc.

     

    _________________________________________________________

     

    Project:

    Community Recovery and Reintegration of Ex-Combatants in Eastern DRC

    Administrator:

    Government of the DRC and United Nations Development Program (UNDP)

    Financing:

    $5 million

    Status:

    Closed

    Objectives:

    The project consists of three components being implemented in five provinces (North and South Kivu, Orientale, Katanga and Maniema), targeting 10,723 ex-combatants:

    • Sensitization and Community mobilization. These activities are aimed at creating a favorable environment for the implementation of the project through creation or reinforcement of local community based networks, village committees, community workshops, discussions, etc. in order to: (i) disseminate objectives of overall project; (ii) promote community participation in socio-economic rehabilitation; (iii) promote confidence and peaceful co-existence between the local communities and ex-combatants.
    • Community reconstruction and development. These activities serve to: (i) strengthen the capacity of communities through rehabilitation of social infrastructure (rural tracks, wells, sanitation facilities, etc.) and initiate a participatory process of long term development; (ii) promote income generation by increasing economic opportunities through the financing of community production initiatives; and (iii) progressively including ex-combatants into these projects.
    • Sustainable reintegration of ex-combatants through the financing of micro-projects. Each micro-project will cost approximately US$ 500 and be implemented through NGOs. They will support ex-combatants in activities that are already traditional economic and social activities in these areas, and involve no new technologies within the communities, nor the development of major work projects.

    Identification of the micro-projects will be based on selection criteria following procedural standards of UNDP. Technical procedures will be standardized to ensure coherency in project implementation. Each project will benefit from technical experience during the implementation cycle of the micro-project (identification, formulation, startup).

     

    _________________________________________________________

     

    Project:

    Rapid Reaction Mechanism to Support the DDR of Ex-Combatants in the DRC

    Administrator:

    United Nations Development Program (UNDP)

    Financing:

    $12.6 million

    Status:

    Closed

    Objectives:

    The project has two main objectives:

    • Facilitate the national DDR program. The project conducts: exploratory activities; evaluation missions; quick surveys of targeted populations; analysis of preliminary conditions for DDR; sensitization activities, peace-building and reconciliation; information exchanges; consultations with targeted groups and other affected populations.
    • Respond to other contingencies and programmatic and operational urgencies. The project aims to rapidly deploy experts, materials and other inputs, as well as to prepare for DDR services in areas of program implementation (demobilization sites, transit centers, community welcome centers, etc.)

     

    _________________________________________________________

     

    Project:

    Support for the Reunification and Reintegration of Former Child Soldiers in the DRC

    Administrator:

    Save the Children UK

    Financing:

    $5.37 million

    Status:

    Closed

    Objectives:

    The project has three main objectives:

    • To improve understanding of the needs of children associated with fighting forces - including girls - and to promote their rights during transition from military to civilian life. This entails the following activities: (i) analyze and document the situation of child soldiers in the Kivus; (ii) conduct participatory research to identify strategies to prevent recruitment and facilitate sustainable reintegration; (iii) identify ways of gaining access to girls associated with fighting forces; (iv) train the military on issues of child protection (training of trainers).
    • To create and strengthen institutional capacity of government and NGO partners to ensure protection of child soldiers in the framework of the national demobilization and reintegration program. This will entail the following activities: (i) support government in participatory policy-making and program design; (ii) prepare training modules; (iii) prepare a framework to monitor implementation and evaluate impact; (iv) train trainers at a regional level; (v) support and monitor training for governmental and non-governmental partners at a provincial level; (vi) evaluate the impact of training.
    • To facilitate the sustainable socio-economic reintegration of child soldiers into their communities through transitional support, family reunification, and strengthening community capacities. This will entail the following activities: (i) strengthen the capacity of local partners to manage transit and orientation centers (CTOs); (ii) trace the families of the demobilized children; (iii) develop pilot activities for community support to Mayi Mayi children; (iv) strengthen the capacity of local networks to monitor the reintegrated children; (v) support community micro-projects that promote the sustainable reintegration of the demobilized child-soldiers.

     





     

    Country Documents

    The following documents will help you better understand the country and its context.

    Program Documentation:

    Sondage sur la Réinsertion des ex-combattants - République Democratique du Congo
    Version française (PDF 1.16 MB)

    Technical Annex - Democratic Republic of Congo Emergency Demobilization and Reintegration Project


    Other Documents:

    DDR in the Democratic Republic of Congo
    Program Update

    English (PDF 200 KB) Français (PDF 203 KB)

    Opportunities and Constraints for the Disarmament & Repatriation of Foreign Armed Groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo
    The cases of the: FDLR, FNL and ADF/NALU

    English (PDF 3.00 MB) Français (PDF 3.15 MB)

    Decret No. 03/041 du 18 Dec. 2003 portant création du Comité Interministériel chargé de la Conception et de l'Orientation en matière de Désarmement, Démobilisation et Réinsertion

    Decret No. 03/042 du 18 Dec. 2003 portant création, organisation et fonctionnement de la Commission Nationale de Désarmement, Démobilisation et Réinsertion, en sigle CONADER

    Decret No. 03/043 du 18 Dec. 2003 portant création, organisation et fonctionnement du Comité de Gestion des Fonds de Désarmement, Démobilisation et Réinsertion, CGFDR en sigle

    Challenges of Peace Implementation: The UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Institute for Security Studies)

    UN map of the Democratic Republic of Congo


    News:

    bullet Dissemination Note No.6 - August 2009
    The End in Sight?
    An updated analysis on the opportunities for disarmament and repatriation of FDLR rebels in the DRC
    bullet Press Release - Goma, 11 August 2009
    World Bank pledges support to African post conflict recovery. WB Press release issued on the occasion of WB President R. Zoellick to DRC.

    bullet N&N - January 16, 2009
    MDRP - news & noteworthy 1 - Biometrics in the bushBiometrics in the bush
    In remote areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo, where roads and running water are scarce or simply non existent, a sophisticated technology is being used to identify ex-combatants.
    (Eng-PDF 427KB)
    (Fr-PDF 508KB)
    bullet N&N - January 14, 2009
    MDRP - news & noteworthy 2 - Eastern DRC: What is happening? An Interview with Phil Maughan
Eastern DRC: What is happening? An Interview with Phil Maughan
    Phil Maughan, an MDRP consultant recently carried out a mission to the Democratic Republic of Congo to follow up on the current situation in the east and presented his findings and impressions in an interview with Chantal Rigaud, Communications Associate in the Secretariat..
    (Eng-PDF 266KB)
    (Fr-PDF 267KB)
    bullet N&N - October 24, 2008
    MDRP - news & noteworthy 10 - In DRC, MDRP helps female ex-combatants regain a livelihood In DRC, MDRP helps female ex-combatants regain a livelihood
    (Eng-PDF 111KB)
    (Fr-PDF 118KB)
    MDRP News in the DRC - June 2008
    English version (PDF 629KB)
    French version (PDF 637KB)

    Article -States News Service - November 16, 2007
    Great Lakes Contact Group Communique
    (Eng-PDF 12KB)

    N&N - July 2007
    MDRP - news & noteworthy 10 - Status of the MDRP in the Democratic Republic of the Congo – July 2007Status of the MDRP in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    (Eng-PDF 111KB)
    (Fr-PDF 95KB)

    Article - Local Press - June 18th, 2007
    Chikez Diemu prône une vision réaliste pour la stabilité en Afrique (in French)
    (Fr-PDF 158KB)

    N&N - May, 2007
    Status of the MDRP in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    (Eng-PDF 49KB)
    (Fr-PDF 91KB)

    N&N - March 12, 2007
    MDRP - news & noteworthy 5 - President Wolfowitz meets with Ex-combatants in Burundi and DRCPresident Wolfowitz meets with Ex-combatants in Burundi and DRC
    (Eng-PDF 276KB)
    (Fr-PDF 227KB)

    Article - Le Potentiel/All Africa, February 6, 2007
    Processus DDR en RDC, le BIT se dote d'experts en démobilisation (article in French)
    (Fr-PDF 25KB )

    Article - L'Observateur, February 6, 2007
    Projet MDRP de la Banque mondiale Le film « Gagner du temps pour la paix » diffusé à Kinshasa (article in French)
    (Fr-PDF 92KB )

    N&N - October 29, 2006
    MDRP - news & noteworthy 21 - DRCChild soldiers in the DRC: an interview with Sarah Michael, MDRP Social Development Specialist
    (Eng-PDF 164KB)
    (Fr-PDF 151KB)

    N&N - October 18, 2006
    MDRP - news & noteworthy 20MDRP Open Letter to Amnesty International
    (Eng-PDF 85KB)
    (Fr-PDF 72KB)

    Article - Potentiel -June 29, 2006
    Conader-Unicef-MDRP : évaluation des projets d'encadrement Eafga en RDC(article in French)
    (Fr-PDF 23KB)

    N&N - May 8, 2006
    news & noteworthy 11MDRP and Interaction’s DRC Working Group Meet, Discuss Operational Experiences and Challenges in the DRC
    (Eng-PDF 165KB)
    (Fr-PDF 155 KB)

    Article - Le Potentiel -February 27, 2006
    Kinshasa: comment améliorer le système de paie des démobilisés? (article in French)
    (Fr-PDF 21KB)

    N&N - March 3, 2006
    DRC’s CONADER: Progress and Constraints in Demobilization and Reintegration
    (Eng-PDF 328 KB)
    (Fr-PDF 318 KB)

    Article - Le Monde -February 22, 2006
    Kinshasa. La Banque mondiale appelle les autorités de la RDCongo à assumer leurs responsabilités dans le processus DDR (article in French)
    (Fr-PDF 20KB)
    Press Release - February 21, 2006
    MDRP Partners to Discuss DRC National Demobilization and Reintegration Program (PNDDR), February 23rd in Kinshasa
    (Eng-PDF 118KB)
    Article- Potentiel - January 11, 2006
    Kinshasa. Brassage des troupes : la Conader accroît ses performances en province (article in French)
    (Fr-PDF 29KB)
    Article - January 3, 2006
    MDRP in DRC's World Bank Magazine (in French)
    Press Release- October 13, 2005
    RDRC assists disarmed FDLR ex-combatants crossing the border
    (Eng-PDF 40KB)
     

    Contacts

     

    World Bank

    Roisin de Burca (Washington)
    Email: info@mdrp.org

    Harald Hinkel (Goma)
    Email: info@mdrp.org

     

     

     

    Regional Activities

    On-going activities.

     

    Relevant Links

    These links will help you better understand the country and its context.

    The World bank: Democratic Republic of Congo

    allAfrica.com: DRC

    Amnesty International: DRC

    Human Rights Watch: DRC

    Institute for Security Studies: DRC

    Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN): DRC

    International Crisis Group: DRC

    MONUC - UN Mission in the DRC

    ReliefWeb: DRC

    Challenges of Peace Implementation: The UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Institute for Security Studies)

     

    Website links provided on this website are for informational purposes only. Their inclusion does not imply MDRP endorsement of or responsibility for the information included therein.


    For any questions regarding MDRP activities please email: info@mdrp.org

    The views expressed in this website, documents or web links posted on this site are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the MDRP Secretariat, the MDRP Partnership or the World Bank.